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Les 4 postulats fondamentaux

assemblee.jpgLes 4 postulats pour lire la Bible

 

Selon le Larousse, un postulat est  un/une: « 1. Proposition que l'on demande d'admettre avant un raisonnement, que l'on ne peut démontrer et qui ne saurait être mise en doute. 2. Principe de base, qui ne peut être mis en discussion. »

Les Témoins de Jéhovah, comme tous les tenants de l’inerrance de la Bible, se basent sur 4 postulats fondamentaux quant à la manière de lire la Bible qui n’est pas nouvelle car elle date des interprètes de l’antiquité. Ces 4 postulats sont  très bien décrits par James Kugel dans son livre La Bible expliquée à mes contemporains p.33-34

  1. Ils supposaient que la Bible est un texte fondamentalement sibyllin : autrement dit, quand le texte disait A, il pouvait souvent vouloir dire B. (…)
  2. Les interprètes supposaient aussi que la Bible était un livre de leçons qui s’adressait aux lecteurs de leur temps. Elle peut sembler parler du passé mais il ne s’agit pas fondamentalement d’histoire. Elle nous instruit, nous dit que faire ; obéissez à Dieu comme Abraham et vous en serez récompensé comme  il l’a été. (…)
  3. Les interprètes supposaient aussi que la Bible ne contenait ni contradictions ni erreurs. Tout y était parfaitement harmonieux, bien que ce soit une anthologie ; en fait, ils croyaient aussi aussi que tout ce que dit la Bible devait s’accorder avec les croyances et les pratiques religieuses des interprètes (puisqu’ils croyaient que celles-ci venaient de Dieu) (…)
  4. Enfin, ils croyaient que la Bible tout entière est essentiellement un texte donné par Dieu, un livre dans lequel Dieu parle directement ou à travers ses prophètes. (…)

Nous voyons que les Témoins de Jéhovah ne diffèrent pas des interprètes de l’Antiquité en appliquant toujours ces 4 postulats. Par exemple :

  • Le postulat n°1 quand ils estiment que les 144 000 qui sont issus de toutes les tribus d’Israël (selon Apocalypse 7 :4) les concernent aussi alors qu’ils ne sont pas Juifs…
  • Le postulat n°2 quand ils estiment que les signes des temps de la fin contenus dans Selon Matthieu 24, correspondent à notre époque
  • Le postulat 3 quand ils affirment que « la Bible ne contient aucun mythe ni aucune contradiction » (Reveillez-Vous Novembre 2007 – p.18) ou que la lumière va croissant pour justifier un changement de doctrine comme dans la Tour de Garde du 15 juillet 2013 qui justifie que dorénavant « l’esclave fidèle et avisé » de la parabole de Matthieu 24: 45-47 correspond aux seuls membres du collège central  depuis 1919 au lieu des 144 000 depuis 33 de notre ère comme ils le comprenaient depuis 1 siècle.
  • Le postulat n°4 quand ils affirment que la Bible est un livre qui vient de Dieu

Si vous tentez ne serait-ce qu'une minute de piétiner ces postulats vous déclencherez la fureur des Témoins de Jéhovah. Beaucoup d'entre eux furent excomunniés pour le simple rejet d'un seul seul des 4 postulats. Les insultes et les anathèmes (à coups de textes bibliques souvent) fuseront alors. Pourtant, il semble normal de questionner ces 4 postulats quand ils tentent de vous convertir par leur prédication, non ? Au nom de quoi devenons-nous accepter sans broncher des affirmations sans preuves ? Autant signer un contrat de travail sans en lire une seul ligne ! 

Les postulats des chrétiens VS la méthode scientifique

Si nous comparons avec la méthode scientifique, nous voyons que nous sommes sur des approches incompatibles. Il y a une totale absence de validation externe ou même de réfutabilité, au sens de Karl Popper 

Nous avons que toutes les sciences(*) sont basées sur l'observation du monde. Comme cette observation est par nature partielle, la seule approche possible consiste à tirer des lois générales de ces observations (remarquons que c'est l'approche générale et fondamentale de tout organisme vivant qui apprend de son millieu). Si cette démarche permet d'avancer, elle ne garantit en aucun cas la justesse des conclusions. Pour Popper, il faut donc prendre au sérieux l'analyse de Hume qui montre l'invalidité fréquente de la démarche de l'induction. 

cygnes-blancs.jpg

Par exemple, je peux émettre l'hypothèse que tous les cygnes sont blancs sur la base des cygnes que j'ai déjà vu. Comme je vois des cygnes blancs partout, j'érige au niveau de loi la proposition générale " Tous les cygnes sont blancs" (démarche inductive). Toutefois, il a fallu que les Européens conquièrent l'Australie pour se rendre compte qu'il existait aussi des cygnes noirs. Par conséquent, un seul cygne noir invalide la loi "Tous les cygnes sont blancs". 

cygne-noirs.jpg

 Ainsi la vérification d'une hypothèse, même par un grand nombre d'expériences, ne permet pas de conclure à la « vérité » de cette hypothèse.

Une proposition scientifique n'est donc pas une proposition vérifiée, mais une proposition réfutable et non encore réfutée. La proposition « Dieu existe » est pour Popper dotée de sens, mais elle n'est pas scientifique, car elle n'est pas réfutable. La proposition « tous les cygnes sont blancs » est une conjecture scientifique. Si j'observe un cygne noir, cette proposition sera réfutée. C'est donc la démarche de conjectures et de réfutations qui permet de faire croître les connaissances scientifiques.

Nous voyons clairement une opposition nette et tranchée entre les 4 postulats des intégristes de la Bible qui rejetteront TOUTE DONNEE contraire qui invaliderait le postulat n°3 et la démarche scientifique qui est honnête et accepte la remise en question. Laquelle préferez-vous ? 

Mais en-dehors de ces postulats, les Témoins de Jéhovah multiplient les erreurs de paralogismes qui sont des raisonnements faits de bonne foi mais absolument faux.  C'est ce que nous verrons dans l'article dédié aux paralogismes des Témoins de Jéhovah 

 


(*) : à l'exception des mathématiques et de la logique qui sont des constructions déductives sur des bases axiomatiques qu'elles choisissent arbitrairement.

 

 

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Date de dernière mise à jour : 26/09/2013